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Encapsulation, Inheritance, Abstraction, and Polymorphism … oh my

Encapsulation

I like to think of encapsulation as group like attributes together in a way that makes sense. A Class is, in a sense, a template to follow when instantiating (creating) an Object. A Class defines the characteristics (attributes) and behaviors (methods) of the group of characteristics. For example, if we are designing an application that tracks personal contacts, then a Person class would look like:
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Reason for salting password hash (or, why “season” the password?)

I recently decide to start re-learning PHP, and started with building in a security framework for the application I’m developing. In my search for how to implement password authentication in PHP, I started to notice that many still neglect “salting” the password at rest. In other words, many believe that creating an MD5 hash of the password is enough. This is simply not the case. The whole reason for salting a password is to create randomness in the password hashes created.
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